MONOGRAPH ON SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND ITS RELATED STUDIES IN THE CARIBBEAN : ADOLESCENTS

 
1)   BERNARD, Lennox. Drug use survey among young people (age 14-20) in Trinidad and Tobago. [S.l]. [s.n]. [s.d].  30 p.

Abstract: The drug use survey presents the most important findings concerning the population age 14 to 20 years in Trinidad and Tobago. A sample of 3023 young people reflecting nationwide coverage included students at the junior secondary, senior secondary, senior comprehensive and private secondary schools as well as students at the vocational and technical institutes, youth camps, youth training centre and unemployed youth. The paper deals in section I with the nature and extent of the drug abuse problem. Current research findings especially by local researchers are highlighted. Section II deals with the methodology. In this section proportional allocation is discussed, the seven-page self administered questionnaire is described and the method of statistical analysis is explained. Limitations of the study are mentioned. Section III deals with the characteristics of the respondents. The major research findings are discussed in section IV. There are three sections in keeping with the objectives of the study:- The use and abuse of drugs, the attitudes of the youth in Trinidad and Tobago towards drug abuse and the youth's perception of the drug abuse problem in Trinidad and Tobago. Section V and VI deal with an analytical summary and recommendations. A technical report is necessary to deal with the large volume of statistical findings. Only a small sample is included.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

2)   DE LA HAYE, Winston; HARRISON, J. (2004). Profile and Pattern of Substance Abuse in Clients treated in an Adolescent Substance Abuse Clinic in a General Hospital in Jamaica [Abstract]. In West Indian Medical Journal v.53 Issue Suppl. 5; 27p.

Abstract: Objective: To describe the demographic characteristics and pattern of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use in adolescents presenting to a substance abuse clinic. Method: The demographic characteristics and pattern of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug abuse of adolescents between the period January 2004 and June 2004, were disaggregated using systematic concurrent chart extractions. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 11.5.

Location: UWI, Mona Campus

3) GORDON, Floris. (1995). Drug abuse in all age schools. Kingston; [s.n]. 1995. 71 p. Thesis: Presented to the University of the West Indies, Mona, for the Degree, Master of Public Health.

Abstract: Drug abuse is a serious problem in Jamaica and around the world, affecting people from all walks of life. The most significant impact is among our youths who remain the most affected by drug abuse. A survey designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of students with regard to drug use was undertaken in schools. The study was conducted among 200 students in four all age schools, in the metropolitan area. In order to do the study a random sample was selected and a self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results revealed that drug abuse was rising and was more common in males than females, in some cases the male to female ratio being four to one. Alcohol was the most commonly used drug, followed by tobacco, cannabis and inhalants. 90 percent of alcohol users became regular users. Among the illicit drugs, cannabis was most prevalent. For both crack and cocaine, the prevalence for current usage had increased significantly since 1987. Twenty percent of students believed there was no risk involved in taking drugs. In general the trend of drug use and abuse is on the rise and fifty percent of students taking drugs began before ten year of age. The author concluded that the problem of drug use and abuse had risen and made recommendations, including that institutions should be set up to deal with drug abuse in adolescents and existing educational programmes be strengthened and targeted at the lower age groups.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

4) LOWE-THORNE, Debra. (2004). Substance Use/Abuse among Adolescents at the Senior Levels of the North Georgetown Secondary School. Georgetown, Guyana: The Caribbean Research Library, Univ. of Guyana Library. 96p. In Thesis: Presented to The University of Guyana for the Degree, Masters in Social Sciences. (Alternate title: Substance Use/Abuse among Adolescents: A Case Study. Paper presented at the University of Guyana Library Professional Seminar, May 2005).

Abstract: Critically examines the types of substance use and/or abused by the Fourth and Fifth Form students at the North Georgetown Secondary School. Also, the extent of the use of the substances, the venue where the substances were used, and the factors that can be linked to the use/abuse of substances among senior level students of the North Georgetown Secondary School. Further, the study examines how the use/abuse of substances affected the students’ personal lives and their performance and behavior in the classroom. The research has brought to light a number of issues. Two of the most significant of those issues are discovered in the change in substances being consumed and the extent of the danger it poses - Students are no longer limiting themselves to the use of tobacco and alcohol but have added marijuana and cocaine. These are being consumed in the home with parental approval. The additions of the stronger drugs now constitute a threat to the safety of the teachers and other students. Further, they are at risk because the school has no guidelines to be guided by when dealing with drug related problems.

 Location: The Caribbean Research Library, University of Guyana Library. Georgetown, Guyana

5) RING, Karen; FRASER, Wanda Bobb. (2005). Alcohol use among Community College students in St. Vincent and the Grenadines : implications for prevention and education programmes. In: Journal of Eastern Caribbean studies, , v. 30, no. 4, p. 1-28.

Abstract: Presents the findings of a study conducted with a group of St. Vincent and the Grenadines Community College students to ascertain their alcohol use, reasons and influencing factors for initial and continuing consumption of the drug, and their prior involvement in school and community drug prevention and education programmes.

Location: CARICOM Secretariat Documentation Centre

6) SHARMA, Karmesh L. D. (1995). Present trends in drug use and abuse in new secondary schools in the Kingston Metropolitan Area. Kingston; [s.n]. 76 p. Thesis: Presented to the University of the West Indies, Mona presented for the degree Master of Public Health.

Abstract: Within recent years, drug abuse has become a priority health problem affecting individuals and threatening the social, political and legal institutions of the region. Sadly, children, including those at school are the main victims of the consequences of drug abuse. A survey was conducted among 200 students, grades 9-11, in 4 new secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Jamaica. Through a self administered questionnaire, the study sought information on the lifetime and current prevalence of licit and illicit drugs, students' perception of the ease of obtaining these drugs, the risk involved and their attitude towards drug use. The findings revealed that there were increases in the lifetime and current prevalence in the use of cannabis, cocaine, crack, psychedelics, opiates, tobacco and alcohol. Students reported increased accessibility to these drugs and less risk involved in drug use, and many reported that they did not disapprove of trying drugs, including cocaine and crack. The highest prevalence of drug use was with alcohol, followed by tobacco and inhalants, and more males reported drugs use than females. These were compared generally to the findings of the NCDA (1987) school survey. The author concluded that drug abuse has increased in this category of students, and made recommendations including, re-evaluation of the drug abuse prevention programmes in schools; strengthening of peer counselling in schools; banning of tobacco and alcohol advertisements, and of smoking in public places and to create a data base on drug abuse for the region.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

7) SINGH, H. N; MAHARAJH, Hari D. (1991). Alcohol and drug abuse among secondary schoolchildren in Trinidad and Tobago. West Indian med. j; 40(suppl.1):25-6, Apr. (Present in: Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council 36th Scientific Meeting, Bridgetown, Apr. 24-27, 1991.)

Abstract: A questionnaire survey of a stratified, randomized sample of 1,603 (80 percent of sample) secondary school students, aged 14-18 years, on substance abuse, was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago in 1988. The life-time prevalence rate for alcohol was 84 percent, tobacco 34.8 percent, marijuana 8.0 percent and cocaine 2.0 percent. Alcohol was the substance most consistently used and students' first exposure to drinking alcohol was by family members in childhood (46.1 percent) or experimentation later. Transitions from primary to secondary schools and from junior to senior schools were associated with increased alcohol use. Ethnic reversals of substance abuse among high school students were observed by a high use of alcohol among Indo-Trinidadian and low use among Afro-Trinidadian students (X = 56.00 df=1). Similarly, the use of marijuana was high in Afro-Trinidadian students when compared to Indo-Trinidadians (X = 28.00 df=1). The use of alcohol by students was positively correlated to its use by fathers and negatively with religious activities. The simultaneous use of drugs among students appears to be a growing problem. Secondary school students in Trinidad and Tobago are foremost among users of alcohol, tobacco and cocaine in the Caribbean region. There is a need for the implementation of culturally relevant educational and prevention programmes in schools (AU)

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

8) SINGH, H; MAHARAJH, Hari D; SHIPP, M. (1991). Pattern of substance abuse among secondary school students in Trinidad and Tobago. Public Health: 105 (6):435-41, Nov.

Abstract: A questionnaire survey of 1,603 secondary school students, aged 14-18 years, was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago in 1988. Prevalence of alcohol use was 84 percent, tobacco 35 percent, marijuana 8 percent and cocaine 2 percent. Alcohol was the substance most consistently used and students' first exposure to drinking alcohol was with family members. Transitions from primary to secondary schools and from junior to senior schools were associated with increased reporting of alcohol use. Significantly more Indo-Trinidadian than Afro-Trinidadian students reported using alcohol frequently. Conversely more Afro-Trinidadian students than Indo-Trinidadians reported using marijuana. The use of alcohol by students was positively correlated to its use by fathers and negatively with religious activities. The use of drugs among students appears to be a growing problem. There is a need for the implementation of culturally relevant educational prevention programmes in schools.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

9) MAHARAJH, H. D.; KONINGS, M. (2005). Cannabis and suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a pilot study from Trinidad. In Scientific World Journal. Aug 8; 5: 576-85.

Abstract: Cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Changing trends in these behaviours in younger age groups, higher incidence, gender differences and sociocultural variations present an enormous challenge. There is no consensus whether these complex relationships are either a direct or an indirect effect due to other mental disorders, or a social response of disclosure of drug taking habits to family members and school authorities. This paper reviews the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and cannabis use among adolescents and looks at the relationship of these behaviours regionally and internationally. The Caribbean islands have an established use of cannabis with higher suicidal rates, which provides an ideal setting to investigate the interrelationship of these disorders. Preliminary research findings in Trinidad indicate high rates of cannabis use among school students with higher rates in vocational schools compared to grammar schools. Utilising the CAPE questionnaire, depressive and psychotic experiences were common findings in adolescent cannabis users with a significant preponderance of depressive experiences (p<0.01). Our findings suggest that there is a convincing relationship between suicidal behaviour and cannabis use, the latter awakening depressive experiences. Suicidal behaviour and cannabis use are major public health problems and require a multidimensional approach with culturally competent preventive interactions. School based prevention programmes are necessary at the levels of parent-teacher partnership and classroom intervention. The treatment of adolescent disorders remains a major challenge of the future. Double disorders such as cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are uncharted areas and need novel approaches.

 Location: PubMed Database (indexed for MEDLINE)

10) SINGH, H; MUSTAPHA, N. (1993). Some factors associated with substance abuse among secondary school students in Trinidad and Tobago – abstract. West Indian med. j; 42(Suppl. 1):27, Apr.

Abstract: The aim of this study done in 1988 was to explore the relationship between substance abuse and attitudes of youth towards education, religion and family life in secondary school students, aged 14 to 18 years in Trinidad and Tobago. A random stratified sampling technique resulted in a selection of 30 secondary schools and 2000 students. Data were collected from 1,603 (80 per cent) students, using a self-administered questionnaire completed in the classroom and supervised by trained survey workers. Analysis of the data, using the Chi-square test, indicated a significant association (p<.001) between involvement in substance abuse (defined as regular or occasional usage of alcohol, marijuana or cocaine) and the following factors: grades at school, importance of religious involvement, amount of spending money obtained, confidence placed in parents/peers, parental involvement in alcohol consumption and educational expectations. Generally, the study indicated that youths who were less committed to traditional values, showed a greater tendency to be involved in substance abuse. Involvement also appeared to be associated with low self-esteem and low educational expectations

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library 

11) SMART, Reginald G; PATTERSON, Sandra D. (1990). Comparison of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among students and delinquents in the Bahamas. Bull Pan Am Health Organ; 24(1):39-45.

Abstract: Surveys of drug use were conducted among 4,767 junior and senior high school students in 1987 and 74 incarcerated delinquents in 1988 in the Bahamas. It was found that the majority of both groups reported having drunk alcohol, and substantial proportions had also smoked tobacco, although over twice as many delinquents as students had smoked. However, use of illicit drugs was far more common among delinquents, at seven times the student rate for marijuana and six times their rate for cocaine. Many social and demographic similarities were found among users in both groups, who were likely to be males who had trouble in school or did not attend school, were not religiously active, and came from families where drugs were used or sold. Over one-third of the delinquents had sold drugs, but almost half (44 percent) of the delinquents and 25 percent of the students said they would use or sell marijuana or cocaine if they had it. The results of the studies point to the need for increased drug education in the Bahamas and for efforts involving schools, churches, parents, the media and Government.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

12) SOYIBO, K; LEE, Michael G. (1997). Use of alcohol, tobacco and non prescription drugs among Jamaican high school students. In West Indian med. j.; 46(4):111-4, Dec.

Abstract: The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and non-prescription drugs was investigated among 2417 Jamaican high school students (1063 boys, 1354 girls). 1317 were grade 10 (form four or 16 years old) and 1100 were grade 11 (form five or 17 years old): 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively; and 1126 and 1291 were children of professionals and non-professionals, respectively. The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use was 50.2 percent and 16.6 percent, respectively; and there was a high level of non-prescription drug use: paracetamol (85.7 percent), aspirin (76.7 percent), multivitamins (41.9 percent) and bismuth (29.9 percent). Drugs use among males, urban students, and children of professionals was higher than among females, rural students and children of non-professionals.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

13) SOYIBO, K; LEE, Michael G. (1999). Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. Bull World Health Organ; 77(3):258-62.

Abstract: Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1354 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2 percent), cocaine (2.2 percent), heroin (1.5 percent) and opium (1.2 percent). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

14) THOMPSON, S. A.; PAUL, Tomlin J.; HOLDER-NEVINS, Desmalee (2004). Ganja use among teenagers 12 to 17 years old in St. Thomas, Jamaica. In West Indian med. j. v. 53. 29-30p.

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effects that perceived benefits and disadvantages along with subjective influences have on the prevalence of ganja use among teenagers 12 to 17 years old in Dt. Thomas, Jamaica. Method: A total of 210 students were randomly selected from three randomly chosen high schools in the Parish of St. Thomas. The ministry of Health/ National Council on Drug Abuse School Survey Questionnaire, revised to cover the study objectives, was self-administered to these students March 2004. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.0 was used for data analysis. Using a structured guide, 18 students also participated in 2 focus group discussions on Ganja use.

Location: UWI, Mona Campus

15) KARLSEN S; ROGERS A; MCCARTHY M. (1998). Social environment and substance misuse: a study of ethnic variations among inner London adolescents. In Ethn Health;3(4):265-73, Nov.

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To explore ethnic variations in drug, tobacco and alcohol use and their correlation with other factors which operate through peer, familial and religious influences. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with 132 12-13-year-old young people from four ethnic groups attending secondary schools in two inner London boroughs and a follow-up interview completed approximately 17 months later. RESULTS: The data was analysed using chi-square and McNemar tests. Familial, religious and peer influence closely correlated with ethnicity. Bangladeshi young people showed lower levels of peer and higher levels of religious and familial involvement and lower levels of substance use. White young people reported higher levels of peer, lower levels of religious and familial involvement, and a higher level of substance use. Black African and Black Caribbean young people lay between the two extremes. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that young people with lower levels of familial and religious influence, or higher levels of peer influence, have higher levels of substance consumption than other young people. Health education initiatives need to promote personal decision-making skills within the context of the young people's individual culture. Cultural diversity should be recognized re within local health education needs assessment.

Location: UWI, St Augustine [ADOLEC Database]

16) KINGTON, Michael G. D. (1999). Peer influence and its health implications for adolescents in selected high schools in Jamaica. Kingston; [s.n]. 1999. ix,62 p. ill. Thesis: Presented to University of the West Indies, Mona, for the degree, Master of Public Health.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which peer pressure influences the behaviour of adolescents and the implications of such behaviours for health. The study, a cross-sectional one, was conducted at the Clan Carthy and Donald Quarry Comprehensive High Schools with 133 adolescents, and employed a multi-stage sampling process - a combination of random and stratified techniques. Subjects for the sample were selected from one class/stream each from grades 7 - 11, making a total of 5 classes in the study sample. A focus group study, involving 2 groups each of 6 students, was conducted to supplement the quantitative findings. Results showed that male adolescents were more involved in gangs/posses, than females. In relation to drug/substance abuse it was shown that the prevalence for males was much higher than that of females except for the use of inhalants, the majority was encouraged by friends to use ganja and alcohol, males were more likely than females to be influenced or encouraged by their friends to use drugs, and males were 3 times more likely than females to meet with friends to drink alcohol. In relation to sexual behaviour, it was shown that approximately 76 percent of adolescents met with friends to discuss sexual matters 70 percent of the times, and that male adolescents were 11 times more likely than females to be encouraged by friends to have sexual intercourse, 14 times more likely to be encouraged to fondle a girl and 10 times more likely to be encouraged to have more than one lover. In relation to violence it was found that a knife was the most prevalent weapon carried or encouraged to be carried by adolescents; pencils/pens/divider were the most prevalent weapons encouraged to be used in fights at school and males were 3 times more likely than females to fight at school. It was concluded that males were more at risk than females to be influenced by their peers, and it was recommended that Family Life Education programmes in schools be intensified and specifically targeting the male adolescent.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

17) LOWRY, Christopher. (1995). Reaching street youth on substance abuse. World Health Forum, 16, (2), p. 131-134.

Abstract: Points out that solvent abuse among street children is a good starting point for creating a story in which all forms of substance abuse can be talked about. It also, describes a cartoon video made by Street Kids International.

Location: CARICOM Secretariat Documentation Centre

18) WRAY, Samuel R.; YOUNG, Lauriann E.; WEAVER, Steve R. (2000). Substance abuse risk factors: Some neuropsychological dimensions. In Brain, function, behaviour, drugs and disease: Neurosciences in the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: Medical and Scientific Development Trust and Caribbean Brain Research Organization 26 p.

Abstract: Seeks to evaluate risk factors considered to be determinants for adolescent deviant behaviours. Substance abuse, a major scourge of the seventies and eighties, is a problem primarily affecting young people and more often males than females. Focuses on the evolution of the psychosocial problems encountered within the Jamaican family structure considered to be inter alia facilitators for the abuse of illicit substances.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

19) ROLLOCKS S; DASS, N. (2007). Influence of religious affiliation in alcohol use among adolescents in Trinidad, Tobago, and St. Lucia: a follow-up study. In Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 33(1):185-9.

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of religious affiliation and other demographic variables in alcohol use and attitudes among adolescents in Trinidad, Tobago and St. Lucia. METHOD: The study used a stratified random sample design of 380 male and 455 female students belonging to the 3 major ethnic groups in Trinidad, Tobago and St. Lucia (Afro-Trinidadian, Indo-Trinidadian, and Mixed group). RESULTS: MANOVA showed an effect for religion, with Hindu adolescents having higher levels of regular alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: This finding supports the existing research in Trinidad and developed countries on the effect of various religious denominations of alcohol use and attitudes.

Location: PubMed Database (indexed for MEDLINE)

20) THOMPSON, S. A.; PAUL, Tomlin J.; HOLDER-NEVINS, Desmalee (2005). To Smoke or Not to Smoke: Understanding Ganja Use in Adolescents. In West Indian med. j. v. 54. 54p.

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effect of attitude and subjective influences on the prevalence of ganja use among adolescents in St. Thomas, Jamaica. Design and Methods: Two hundred and ten students aged 12-17 years were randomly selected from three randomly selected high schools in St. Thomas. A self-administered questionnaire, modified from the Ministry of Health/National Council on Drug Abuse School Survey Questionnaire to meet the study objective, was given after receiving consent from each school's administration. SPSS version 11.0 was used for data analysis. Using a structured guide, 18 students also participated in two focus group discussions analyzed using a framework approach.

Location: UWI, Mona Campus

21) VITTETOE, Kenneth; et al. (2002). Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Central America and the Dominican Republic. In Rev. panam. salud publica = Pan am. j. public health;11(2):76-82, Feb.

Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescent students in six countries of Central America and in the Dominican Republic. Methods: Data were drawn from a multinational collaborative study that included questionnaire surveys of between 451 and 1 170 school-attending adolescents in each of the seven countries studied. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). The conditional form of logistic regression was employed for analysis, matching students on type of school and area, with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. Results: Occurrence of tobacco use was observed to vary dramatically from country to country. Nevertheless, for the combined group of countries, the estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest levels of behavioral problems was more than five times that for youths at the lowest levels, after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family, and mental health. Country-specific analyses show that youths at the highest levels of behavioral problems have a consistently greater occurrence of tobacco use as compared to youths at the lowest levels of behavioral problems. Conclusions: These findings are concordant with prior studies on tobacco use among adolescents with behavioral problems. Although the magnitude of observed associations varied according to the country of residence, the strength of these associations and their significance by conventional standards were observed in nearly all the countries sampled. This is the first study in these seven countries on potentially causal relationships such as these. More research is needed to augment our knowledge regarding the observed cross-country differences and ultimately to develop, implement, and evaluate effective tobacco preventative intervention programs.

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

22) BENJAMIN, Keithly. (1994). Drug situation for life skills program for primary schools. The Valley; [s.n]. Feb. 28. 5 p. Present in: Drug situation for life skills program for primary schools workshop, The Valley, Feb. 28.

Abstract: No abstract available

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

23) BROWN, Carlos. An investigation in drug use and abuse in primary and all-age schools. Kingston: [S.l]. [s.d]. 26 p.

Abstract: No abstract available

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

24) BYFIELD, Marva.(1994). Family system and adolescent drug involvement. Jamaican Nurse; 32(2):49-50. Present in: 5th Annual Research Conference and Mary Seivwright Day, Kingston, Apr. 5-6 1994.

Abstract: No abstract available

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

25) REMY, Lionel. (1993). Drug use among adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago: a preliminary report of a five year epidemiological study. Present in: Conference of the Caribbean Studies Association, 18, Kingston, 24-29 May.

Abstract: No abstract available

Location: MedCarib (Bireme) Virtual Health Library

 
2011 Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat. All Rights Reserved. P.O. Box 10827, Georgetown, GUYANA.
Tel: (592) 222 0001-75 Fax: (592) 222 0171 | E-mail your comments and suggestions to: registry@caricom.org | SiteMap