Political legend, father of democracy, leader distinguished,
visionary politician are but a few of the accolades used to
describe Grantley Herbert Adams, first Premier of Barbados,
and one of the Caribbean Region's most outstanding political
The unprecedented accomplishments of Sir Grantley in the political
liberation of Barbados, and advancing the cause of workers and
the poor exploited masses, led his numerous supporters to perceive
him as a messianic figure. The respect and reverence held for
this great leader, often referred to as 'Moses" and "Messiah",
lay in his unique ability to relate to and understand the needs
of the ordinary folk in his country.
On April 28, 1898, the course of Barbados history was charted
with the birth of Grantley Herbert Adams to Fitzherbert Adams
and the former Rosa Frances Turney. Born at Colliston Government
Hill, St. Michael, he was the third of seven offspring of this
union. He was educated at St. Giles School and Harrison College
Sir Grantley, as he was popularly known, excelled
and won a scholarship in 1918 which afforded him the opportunity
to attend Oxford University in England pursuing studies in Classics
and Jurisprudence. Grantley Adams was admitted to the Bar at
Grey's Inn and functioned as a Counsel of Her Majesty, the Queen
of England. He returned to Barbados in 1925, and in 1929 the
former Grace Thorne became Mrs. Grantley Adams. Following his
father's path, their only child, Tom Adams, also entered the
legal profession and was elected the second Prime Minister of
Sir Grantley's ascendancy to political greatness was born out of his
insatiable desire to transform the conditions of his people, particularly
the poor masses and unrepresented labour. His unrelentless battle with
the exploitative colonial establishment to guarantee and preserve the
rights of Barbadians was met with resistance by the ruling plantocracy.
This resistance was however no deterrent to this brilliant and articulate
Caribbean leader. His prominence in Barbadian society as a highly respected
legal professional, coupled with his exceptional advocacy and debating
ability, provided the means for penetrating and persuading the existing
colonial power structure to effect social and economic changes beneficial
to the poor and disadvantaged. His election to the Barbados House of
Assembly in 1934, and re-election in 1935 and 1936, was the springboard
for the battle he waged on behalf of his people for better social conditions.
The riots of 1937 in Barbados, in response to the colonialists deporting
popular unionist Clement Payne, gave Sir Grantley the opportunity to
advocate more strongly for reform. Chosen as the representative to report
to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in England on the riots,
he made clear the need for reform to alleviate the massive poverty and
injustice in Barbadian society. The riots and ensuing protest reinforced
the need for unity among workers and a unified political approach to
addressing the society's problems. Out of this milieu, the Barbados
Labour Party (BLP), formerly the Barbados Progressive League, was created
on 31 March 1938.
Sir Grantley's immense popularity and repute for providing strong political
leadership and guidance may have been responsible for his election,
in his absence, as the Party's first Vice-President. In 1939, he assumed
the position of Party Leader. A major victory was recorded in 1940 when,
under his leadership, the BLP secured five seats in the House of Assembly.
Sir Grantley Adams' political life became closely intertwined with his
involvement in the labour movement. He fought on both fronts, as a politician
and lawyer and as a trade unionist, to bring about social and political
transformation in the Barbados society and to redress the injustices
faced by the working class. His fervour in representing the masses against
the established colonial regime was extended to his work as a trade
unionist and as President of the Barbados Workers' Union for thirteen
years from 1941-1954.
With his unique position as leader of the Barbados Labour Party and
the Barbados Workers' Union, Sir Grantley was poised to head a formidable
challenge to the ruling regime which the collaboration of those two
organisations presented. The trade union activism of Sir Grantley and
his cohorts, Barbadian national heroes, Sir Hugh Springer and Sir Frank
Walcott, was catalytic for the workers' cause in Barbados with resultant
improvement in the conditions of labour. The passing of the Barbados
Workers' Compensation Act and the creation of a Wages Board and Labour
Movement are attributed to the efforts of Sir Grantley and his peers,
as is the introduction of minimum wage legislation, improved working
conditions and benefits which were secured for various categories of
workers, including plantation and industrial workers.
As a key figure in Barbados' political landscape during the 1940s and
1950s, Sir Grantley is said to have "dethroned the plantocracy".
In 1942, he was appointed a member of the Executive Committee which
had attained full Cabinet status. He was called upon to present the
names of four candidates for membership of the Executive Committee in
1946, a political development which facilitated the introduction of
a semi-ministerial system of Government in Barbados. Among the numerous
achievements, which can be credited to the political sojourn of the
"Father of the Nation", was the introduction of Universal
Adult Suffrage in 1951. Women were given the opportunity to vote as
their male counterparts. The Governor-General, in 1954, appointed him
the First Premier of Barbados heading a full ministerial government.
The political manoeuvrings of Grantley Adams made possible the introduction
of full internal self-government in 1958, setting Barbados on a glorious
political path to independence from Britain.
Barbados' current political stability and level of economic development
has its underpinnings in the formidable foundation Adams managed to
establish in his movement to secure social and economic development
and political reform in the Island State. His leadership produced a
diversified Barbados economy. The Barbados Development Board was established.
There was significant reform and rehabilitation in the social sector,
particularly in education, health and housing. Modernisation of the
education system, introduction of a Teachers' Training Programme in
the form of the Ediston Teachers' College in 1948, the construction
of new housing schemes and roads are some of the hallmarks of his achievements
as a political leader. Symbols of the high honour he was accorded still
exist today in the nation he so loved. Barbados' international airport
bears his name, the Grantley Adams International Airport, and his image
appears on the highest currency note, the $100 bill.
In recognition of his meritorious contribution to Barbados and the wider
Caribbean region, Her Majesty, the Queen of England, knighted him in
1957. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital stands today as a monumental reminder
of the signal contributions of a leader who was dedicated and committed
to ensuring the wellbeing of his people and creating for them, better
social and living conditions.
Adams' association with the movement for a West Indies Federation may
be aptly described as both pinnacle and pitfall of his political career.
After many years of striving for the introduction of an independent
Federal System of Government in the West Indies, it must have been a
bitter-sweet victory to surrender his Premiership of Barbados to assume
the position of the first (and only) Premier of the West Indies Federation
from1958-1962. He had left behind an indelible mark on the social and
political landscape of his nation and was enthused to navigate this
early attempt at regionalism. In most of his career, his political activism
and trade union involvement complemented each other and, as President
of the Caribbean Labour Congress, Sir Grantley Adams was able to advocate
successfully for support for Federation. The demise of the West Indies
Federation in 1962, in large part, due to self-interest and insularity
among participating territories, symbolised, in a way, an end to the
dynamic political leadership of Grantley Adams. He returned in a more
subdued role to the political scene in Barbados in 1962 and in 1966
became the first Leader of the Opposition in a newly independent Barbados
after being re-elected to the House of Assembly. In 1970, at the age
of 72, Sir Grantley Adams quietly stepped out of the public and political
arena and slipped away to a higher service one year later in November
Grantley Herbert Adams was, without a doubt, a charismatic Caribbean
leader who fought doggedly against oppressive colonial dictates for
the economic advancement and political liberation of the Barbadian masses.
He had the distinction of achieving many "firsts" as a politician
and as a trade unionist, charting the beginning of the labour movement
and ministerial governance in Barbados, and the early attempts at political
unity in the Caribbean. His quest for regional collaboration was not
limited to the institution of politics but extended beyond to the labour
movement as he sought successfully for a united front for labour unions
in the region in the form of the Caribbean Labour Congress.
Sir Grantley was as passionate about being Barbadian as he was of cricket.
In Sealey's "Caribbean Leaders", it is said of Sir Grantley
by one of his contemporaries, "My abiding impression of Grantley
was that he was first and foremost immensely Barbados. I think all of
his instincts, his prejudices...were Barbadian. Certainly his outlook
on life was that of a Barbadian, nurtured in the soil and caring most
about the Barbadian scene and the Barbadian people in a sort of personal
way." A true West Indian, he loved cricket, inheriting his passion
for the sport from his father. It is said that he loved talking cricket
and never was to be interrupted. He was a founding member of the Barbados
Cricket Association and Barbados Cricket League, representing his country
as a wicket keeper.
Such was the breadth and scope of his being - lawyer, politician, debater,
social reformer, trade unionist, nation builder, champion of the masses,
cricketer, but first and foremost, a Barbadian and a West Indian. And
to the ordinary man, he was, in the words of Hazel Marshall's (2002)
ballad to this hero, a veritable Bajan "Moses".