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UWI-CARICOM Project
Strategic Alliance for Institutional Cooperation


PAPERS AND ARTICLES

 

Abortion in Jamaica and International Law
by Professor Stephen Vasciannie; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

The role of human resources in the development processes of any nation is accepted as obviously pivotal, even where that role and its effects are not completely understood. A corollary is that any action that might impinge on the generation of human resources, in terms of quantity or quality, is deemed worthy of serious analysis. Thus, the Malthusian cloud of demise through over-population, has floated over the development landscape, and has been accompanied by concepts of population control. Several methodologies have been designed to frustrate fecundity in the face of the implacable drive of our selfish genes for immortality through replication. In this milieu, abortion has a prominent place of dubious honour; and the laws and practices of states often reflect uncertainties and internal inconsistencies across the spectrum of honourable and dishonourable men and women. The case of Jamaica, a prominent member of CARICOM that often assumes a leadership role, is the subject of this paper that examines abortion in the context of Jamaican and International Law.

Antigua and Barbuda: Case Against the US at the WTO
by Sir Ronald Sanders; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003.

In this article, Sir Ronald Sanders explicates the special case of Antigua and Barbuda to residents of the United States. He represents the details of the position taken by Antigua to the dispute settlement body of the WTO in a speech to the Antigua and Barbuda Chamber of Commerce.

Attitudes to the Public Sector
by The Hon. Lloyd Best; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

The late Hon. Lloyd Best recalls that his ideas about the transformative role of the public sector emerges from discussions held in 1961 with Premier Cheddi Jagan in which he introduced the notion of localization as distinct from nationalization. It was at a time when the search was initiated for alternative models or independent paradigms for the transformation of the plantation economy which is still incomplete 25 years afterwards.

He refers to the novels of V.S. Naipaul and D.H. Lawrence to underline his contention that different paradigms of society lead to different results. The paradigm of Britain's highly ordered and closely knit society as described by Lawrence is manifested in cleavages and societal features different from those in a fragmented plantation society characterized by a multiplicity of political and cultural communities, as treated by Naipaul. The debate on the role of private and public sectors has been imported along with “gratuitous confusions,” by people oblivious of its origins and the fact that it is based on a cleavage between Capital and Labour characterizing the emergence of capitalism in the North Atlantic. There, entrepreneurship emerged through private capital accumulation.

The Banana Dilemma - The Challenges Facing CARICOM
by Ambassador Edwin Laurent; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 2, December 2004.

This paper draws attention to the lessons learnt from the diplomacy of some of the smallest States in the world, which had a decisive bearing on the evolution of the regime and the nature of the eventual resolution of the dispute. It advocates ruthless prioritisation of the national interest of the small, single product-dependent State and mobilization of the entire national capacity of such States to ensure that they influence decision making of key government and multilateral institutions so as to make proposed adjustments to the irreversible trends of globalisation, smooth or acceptable in their speed of compliance or unemployment impact. It points to the need to recognize that there is no feasible alternative, ultimately, to diversification in bananas. Ambassador Laurent emphasises the need to manage the relative speeds of liberalization and diversification to avoid economic decline.

Border Controversies and their Implications for Stability and Security of the Caribbean Community
by Ambassador Cedric L. Joseph; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Integrationist CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

Ambassador Joseph in this paper, asserts that the existence of age-old territorial disputes and of undelimited maritime zones contributes to local uncertainties and that the consequences can proliferate beyond the initial areas of involvement. He also expresses that the newer maritime issues should be managed by regional diplomacy in good faith, since it is the failure of that diplomacy that would be unhelpful to the Community.

The Caribbean Community must find mechanisms to manage the existing border controversies among Member States and those likely to emerge from the new situation requiring maritime delimitation. The situations have not attained crisis levels but they are indicative of some turmoil in regional affairs with the prospect for disruptions in the workings of the community. Further, the prevailing situation has the potential to convey to the international community an incapacity to settle disputes peacefully, which is a major requirement of international behaviour. It invites the agents of division and intrigue at a time of vital trade negotiations.

Boundary and Maritime Issues
by Carl Dundas; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Carl Dundas analyses the undemarcated maritime borders in CARICOM and the facility for creating conflict among Member States. He has in mind the recent Barbados-Trinidad and Tobago dispute which was settled by an arbitration panel under the UNCLOS in April, 2006. He considers the settlement as the latest attempt of boundary-making in CARICOM.

Carl Dundas highlights a number of issues relating to boundary-making that have emerged since the entry into force in 1994 of the provisions of the UNCLOS. These issues include overlapping claims; the presence or potential of hydro-carbons in the relevant delimitation area; the impact of fisheries; commercial, particularly shipping, considerations; and environment considerations. Since these issues generally lead to controversies and disputes, he argues that it is imperative that some examples are given of those CARICOM countries that have settled their maritime boundaries by demonstrating a strong preference for negotiation. The point is stressed that for negotiations to be successful, the political will to settle must be paramount. Too often the legal and technical arguments are exhaustively argued and justification found to rest the view-point of either side. When that point is reached, he says, it is the political will of both sides that will have to be invoked to make informed concessions to resolve outstanding issues.

Brazil and the Caribbean in a Changing Regional Environment: Challenges and Prospects
by Dr. Mark Kirton; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

Dr. Mark Kirton seeks in his paper to assess the development of CARICOM -Brazil relations and to discuss the prospects and challenges for the twenty -first century.

In order to place the discussion of Brazil - CARICOM relations in context, Dr. Kirton identifies and examines some of the historical antecedents which have impacted on the emergence and development of these relations, noting that there was 'no significant interaction between Brazil and the Caribbean before World War 11.' He further traced the Caribbean's relationship with Brazil noting that in 1983, Brazil condemned the U.S.-led intervention in Grenada, since it violated the principle of non-intervention as enshrined in the UN and OAS Charters. He recalls that in the mid 1970s Brazil expressed its concern at the decision of the four major and influential CARICOM states, Guyana, Trinidad, Barbados and Jamaica, in 1972, to establish formal diplomatic relations with Cuba.

The paper concludes that despite their differing positions on some global and regional issues, Brazil and CARICOM are natural partners with converging interests which present significant potential for cooperation.

The Changing Environment of OECS International Relations and Some External Policy Implications
by Professor Vaughan Lewis; Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

This paper is the Opening Address that Professor Vaughan Lewis gave, on 24 August 2005, to a High Level Retreat of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States on the Preparation of an OECS Trade Policy Framework. To facilitate the presentation, Professor Lewis concludes with a ten-point summary of the main points made during his Address. Readers of the Paper may well find it useful to begin by reading that summary at the end of the paper, and then filling in its analytical underpinnings by reading the presentation from the beginning as they normally would. Professor Lewis begins by reminding his audience of the nearly forty-year old observations that Dr Eric Williams had made, caveats he had offered about the unlikelihood that Commonwealth preferences such as those for citrus and sugar, would survive British entry into the European Common Market. Dr Williams had pointed to the fact that the whole mood of the world was changing against preferences; and he strongly advised that the time taken for Britain to gain entry into the European Economic Community should be used to “reduce our dependence on Britain either by lowering our costs of production or by judicious forms of economic diversification.”

Cancún Stand-Off: Victory or Defeat for CARICOM?
by Dr. Rosalea Hamilton; The Integrationist, Vol. No. 2, December 2003.

Dr. Rosalea Hamilton, in this article, provides a precise account of the background to the meeting and the sequence of events that led to the stand-off, from the perspective of a participant. The implications of the Cancún outcome for CARICOM within the broad context of international trade and development are considered by Dr. Hamilton, with particular emphasis on the necessity for a transformative programme and strategies that would enhance the region's competitiveness and ability to negotiate.

Caribbean Adjustment in the Current Global Economic Readjustment
by Professor Vaughan A. Lewis; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 3, July 2002.

Professor Vaughan Lewis in this article posits that the so-called preferential regimes for ACP agricultural commodities are being ruthlessly swept away as countries are being constrained to adjust to the requirements of the World Trade Organisation.

Caribbean Civilisation
by Dr. Kirk Meighoo; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006

Dr. Kirk Meighoo in this article on Caribbean Civilization, remains unconvinced of the veracity of the employment, usage and with the arguments advanced for the existence of a Caribbean Civilisation. He admits that the Caribbean possesses many, if not all, of the attributes of a civilisation but misses the essence, and the main feature of a civilisation. According to him, a civilisation is often composed of many societies, nations, and peoples and has an identifiable cultural, and often geographic centre around which others revolve, feed off, rebel against or feed into.

Expanding upon his definition of a civilisation, Dr. Meighoo pointed to our uncertainty about our autonomy and independence in matters considered serious, and the tendency for this uncertainty to prevail in the areas of economic organisation, justice, military matters, constitutional systems, and other institutional arrangements and our native sense is marginalised in favour of the international. In concluding, he cites Lloyd Best as observing the persistence of West Indian ambivalence – an ambivalence that springs from the fact that we have this dual consciousness and our inability of bringing about the integration of the two halves and distilling what is our new Afro-Saxon heritage.

The Caribbean Community: A Player in World Politics and International Relations
Written by Dr. Jessica Byron of the University of the West Indies as an aid to the work of the Secretariat.

A Caribbean Community For All
by Dr. Compton Bourne; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Integration: CARICOM's Key to Prosperity, CARICOM 30th Anniversary Distinguished Lectures, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

According to Dr. Compton Bourne the Caribbean Community is not homogenous and its Member States evince both economic heterogeneity and similarities. Indeed he explains that diversity does not invalidate the concept of community of nations but warns that persistent wide and growing differences in economic situations and prospects could be a source of tension with ultimate disintegrative effects on the community.

This paper ends with an acknowledgment of “the growing phenomenon of intra-Caribbean investment” in which 39 companies participated in cross-border operations in manufacturing, financial services, tourism and multiproduct business.

The Caribbean Court of Justice in Regional Economic Development
by The Hon. Mr. Justice Duke Pollard; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No.2, March, 2002.

In his article, Justice Pollard observes, among other things that the legal aspects of integration are intimately bound up with its economic development. He notes that “contrary to popular persuasion, the law and legal institutions play a critical, though often times, unheralded role in national economic development”.

Caribbean Diplomacy Towards New International Actors in the Caribbean Basin
by Dr. Diana Thorburn; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Dr. Diana Thorburn, in her paper, positions the contemporary Caribbean basin within a changing diplomatic and political arena and situates it upon “a wave of new international political dynamics in the region.” She summons and interprets three silent but significant recent occurrences relative to Haiti, and conducted under the auspices of France, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China, to substantiate her claim of a changing environment. Then additionally, she describes a grounded South African military jet loaded with arms destined for Haiti as a twist of historical precedence since, also from Jamaica, Cuban jets once took off for Angola thirty years ago and thereby precipitated the demise of apartheid South Africa.

In her view, the purported role of France in President Aristide's removal; the first significant Latin American military presence in the circum-Caribbean with Brazil's leadership of UN peacekeeping forces; and the first overseas deployment of the People's Revolutionary Army since, the early 1950s, signal the arrival of new international actors in the region.

Caribbean Economic Integration: Challenges and the Way Forward
by Professor Clive Y. Thomas; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 3, July 2002.

In this article, Professor Clive Y. Thomas focuses on the challenges and the way forward for Caribbean economic integration. He notes that several fundamental challenges have arisen in the recent past even though some of them have been in long gestation. An important dimension of these challenges is that they have resulted in the scope for independently guided national policy choices and options, as expressed by governments, to be progressively narrowed in wide areas of economic and social life.

Caribbean Futures
by Professor Brian Meeks; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004

Professor Meeks in this article on Caribbean Futures, contests the current emphasis in Caribbean integration on political and economic issues above cultural and human ones. He sees the need for a coherent vision which essentially reflects the communion of the Caribbean peoples with each state having a significant control over its internal affairs though with strong common institutions with clearly defined functions. He contends that having a coherent vision is an absolutely necessary element for “meaningful social and political engagement,” giving meaning and conviction to the struggle for an alternative state of being. Professor Meeks proposes the redefining of Caribbean psychic and geographical space as the path to be taken in placing cultural and human matters ahead of economic and political issues even though both of the latter will inevitably enter the picture. He suggests a redefining of the Caribbean “psychic space” operationalised through practical means like the advancing of a Caribbean passport; a rethinking of the entire process of incentives for free movement and occupation of territories with small populations; and a reclaiming of the Caribbean Commons, the Sea, to effectively make it into a bridge, rather than a barrier, for strengthening the notion of “collective self” and a “popular communion of Caribbean peoples.”

Caribbean Geopolitics: The Bird Island Controversy
by David Granger; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 3, July 2002

In this article David Granger analyses issues of border Caribbean Geopolitics especially as it relates to Bird Island in Dominica.

Caribbean Reasonings
by The Hon. Lloyd Best; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006

The late Hon. Lloyd Best in this article, called for the articulation of a vision that is capable of driving the integration movement. A vision underpinned by vigorous empirical work that recognises and describes the history of the region as it has evolved. In his view, such a vision has never been articulated by CARICOM and consequently, the Caribbean region needs a new start and CARICOM requires an entirely new approach to regional integration - an empirically-grounded, pragmatic way forward.

Best faulted the Region for failing to derive criteria for measurement of progress as well as failing to design the institutions required or to utilize the existing institutions, such as the regional university. Moreso, there is not a committed cadre capable of breeding integration ideas. There is a paucity of this and this requires the UWI to return to its original purpose.

The Caribbean Seascape
by Carl Dundas; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Integrationist CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

The dominance of the Caribbean Sea in the very formation of Caribbean societies and its continued defining role in the survival and development of these societies has been brought into sharp focus by Carl Dundas in his consideration of the Caribbean Seascape. He employs the landscape ecology terminology when he speaks of seascape to refer to the ecological and biological relationship between the various ecosystems found in the Caribbean. A seascape described as embracing a number of sensitive and vulnerable ecosystems which are linked to the land through coastlines and currents of the sea, and have important economic potential for the region as a whole.

Caribbean Security Co-operation: A Conceptual Framework
by David Granger; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004.

In this article, Brigadier Granger argues that given the geo-political dynamics of the Region, its leaders, in its own best interest, should reconceptualise an institution which he calls a “Caribbean Security Cooperation System” rooted in three principles: “common”, “comprehensive” and “collective” security, which together will constitute a formula for making the Region a “zone of peace.” He draws attention to the vulnerability of the state itself, the paramountcy of extra-regional countries and the powerlessness of regional states, despite the existence of the Regional Security System (RSS).

The Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME): The International Environment and Options for CARICOM and the OECS Countries
by Professor Vaughan Lewis; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006

This paper, contends that the concomitants of international trade and economic liberalisation; the adoption of IMF/World Bank Washington Consensus principles and programmes of structural adjustment by some CARICOM states; the abandonment of the principle of tariff-protected import substitution as the basis of industrialization and economic growth embracing Open Regionalism, implying full integration into the world economy; and the recognition that the major powers of the world are bringing into force new principles of regulation of the conduct of international trade and production, to which all countries - developed and developing - would have to subscribe, facilitate the progressive implementation of the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas thereby bringing the specific elements of the CSME into effect.

The paper concludes with a call for the Community to test the EU assertion that the Regional Economic Partnership Agreement is intended to enhance the scope for Caribbean regional economic integration, noting that regional economic integration is a means to an end - the end of enhanced economic growth. Effective regional economic integration must permit, or increase, the possibilities for our competitive participation in the wider liberalised global economy. It would therefore serve both their interest and ours.

The Caribbean Single Market and Economy: The Way Forward
by The Rt. Hon. Owen Arthur; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004

In Prime Minister Arthur's discussion of the CSME and the Way Forward he notes that it is the “the most complex, the most ambitious, and the most difficult enterprise ever contemplated in our Region.” Pointing to the difficulties being faced in translating the provisions under the CSME into the popular habit and lived reality of the Caribbean people, he bemoans the absence of a supranational regional institution” to which some degree of national sovereignty can be devolved; the history from which the Region's inordinate dependence on extra-regional markets to the neglect of regional markets has arisen; the absence or underdevelopment of the appropriate instruments of communication to bring the Caribbean people up-to-date with regional events and to bring them together as one; the apathy toward issues pertaining to regional restructuring; the deficit on excellence evident in the caliber of leadership in the Region, the stature of institutional integrity and the absence of high aspirations. Yet, he maintains that the CSME represents the most effective means logistically and economically- by which individual economies of the region can be successfully integrated into the evolving global economic system.

CARICOM and the Current Challenges of Multilateral Negotiations
by Dr. Jessica Byron; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003

This paper calls for a realistic assessment of the results of the Cotonou and FTAA processes and recognition that the former was the end, rather than the beginning, of a process with the EU. Dr. Byron singles out the establishment of the Single Market and Economy as a way of countering economic and political marginalisation and the undertaking of drastic structural adjustment processes to increase competitiveness.

CARICOM Beyond Thirty: Connecting with the Diaspora
by The Most Hon. P.J. Patterson; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004.

The Most Hon. P.J. Patterson, in this address on the occasion of the 30th Anniversary of CARICOM, entitled CARICOM Beyond Thirty: Connecting with the Diaspora, the Most Hon. P.J. Patterson observes that the “engaged” Diaspora manifests the quality of “connectedness” that may be purely emotional and/or motivated by the fact that there are strong family connections back home with attendant financial obligations. The task is to harness this yet untapped or underutilized financial and human resource potential by building new reliable institutions to engage all Caribbean residents living abroad. Prime Minister Patterson, recognized the need for reciprocity in engaging the Diaspora, and recommend the building of institutions on the Diaspora side as well to aggregate Diaspora savings for prudent and profitable investment back home.

CARICOM Current Status and Future Prospects
by Professor Kenneth Hall; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006

This paper treats with statements about development issues, related analyses, and prognoses proffered about CARICOM's evolution. The lecturer, Professor Kenneth Hall, in treating with this triad of dimensions of the grouping's 33-year-old evolution, laid the basis for asserting that 'CARICOM is at the crossroads of history.' He concluded with confidence, based on his analyses and not a little tinge of hope, that the freedom and dignity of our collective Community' will be secured through the application of the necessary vision and wisdom within the region, but cautioned that in the final analysis there remains an underlying dissatisfaction with the slow pace of implementation of the decisions derived from the bold Regional vision, of which the signing of the Single Market declaration is a case in point. This inertia or persistent psychological and logistical impediment to progress he notes, may well be the key factor that determines whether the Region's wide range of natural and human resources can indeed be deployed to achieve the goal of what is described by Professor Hall, despite the disabilities related to small size, as 'one of the most prosperous regions in the world based on the exploitation of its significant resource endowment.’

The CARICOM Development Fund for Disadvantaged Countries, Regions and Sectors
by Dr. Compton Bourne; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Dr. Bourne, in reference to the significance of the proposed establishment of a Regional Development Fund for Disadvantaged Countries, Regions and Sectors (or RDF), notes that it is one of a set of interlocking and self-reinforcing components of the CSME, and is signalled in explicit provisions and implicit considerations in the Revised Treaty. He points out that the Fund stems from the existence of the CSME and the diversity in the economic circumstances of its membership whilst the CSME itself has its justification in the need to offset the impact of the creation of economic unions and regional blocs among other countries.

The CARICOM Development Fund: Economic Sense or Political Expediency
by Professor Havelock Brewster; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

Professor Brewster in this paper spells out the rationale for the Fund and makes the point that any notion that such a Fund might be an analogue of the Structural Funds of the European Union is severely misplaced, and gives cogent reasons for that view. These reasons, taken together with the anomalous circumstance that the Per Capita Income of several of the states perceived to be disadvantaged, rival or exceed those of the prospective CARICOM donor countries, are given as an adequate basis for declaring the model of Fund accepted by the CARICOM Heads of Government not to be making 'Economic Sense'.

CARICOM Diplomacy and US-Caribbean Relations in the Hemisphere
by Professor Vaughan Lewis; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Professor Vaughan Lewis, in this paper, reviews an agenda of issues in US-Caribbean relations against the backdrop of dissonance in perspectives in a reportedly difficult meeting of CARICOM Foreign Ministers with US Secretary of State in February 2002. He examines the state of affairs between the two sides by reference to: Haiti; Cuba; Iraq; the banana dispute brought before the WTO; NAFTA parity; the deportation of criminals of Caribbean origin. He also examines concepts of US vulnerability and US practice of the use of forceful intervention and its extended post 9/11 justification. Finally, he assesses the scope for enhancing the effectiveness of CARICOM diplomacy to create an environment that could help inhibit the use of force for regime change.

CARICOM Non-Intervention and Intervention
by Professor Cedric Grant (deceased); edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007.

The late Professor Cedric Grant examines the principle of Non-Intervention and Intervention in CARICOM in a paper prepared for the United Nations Development Fund in December 2004. He deals with some of the examined by Ambassador Jackson regarding the developments in Grenada in 1979. His paper is also concerned with the response of CARICOM to the events and to the division in the Community. He follows these through later occurrences in St Kitts and Nevis in 1993; the political impasse in Guyana following the elections of December 1997; and the crisis in St Vincent and the Grenadines in 2002.

CARICOM's Political, Economic and Hemispheric Relations: Some Reflections
This paper was written by Allison Anderson, Marie Freckleton and Clairmont Kirton at the UWI-CARICOM's request.

Compliance, Enforcement and Dispute Settlement in CARICOM
by Joseph Farier; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 2, December 2004.

The paper reviewed the machinery in CARICOM for compliance and dispute settlement, anticipating that it would need to be reinforced in at least three ways: by facilitating urgent maritime boundary delimitation needs; by strengthening the reporting and institutional requirements for observance of the Charter of Civil Society; and by strengthening, in an appropriate form, the Secretariat's capacity to initiate action to hold up a regional frame of reference in the case of disputes originating in intra-state political divergences, bilateral disputes between States or disputes affecting fundamental interests of the Community.

Confronting Gender-Based Violence in the Caribbean
by The Hon. Mme. Justice Désirée Bernard; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007.

The Honourable Madam Justice Désirée Bernard in this presentation, addresses aspects of the issue of gender in the regional integration process. The advocacy of women's movements and organizations was the driving force behind the placing on the national and international agendas for action, the questions of women's rights and gender issues. In focusing on gender-based violence in the Caribbean, the Paper outlines the causes, incidence and societal impacts of domestic violence (sexual abuse, sexual harassment). It makes reference to international, regional and national initiatives to deal with the phenomenon and its various manifestations. In pointing to the steps desired to assist the region in confronting the challenges, the Paper stresses, in addition to necessary legislation, the need for attitudinal changes and capacity building of those who have to administer the laws in the enforcement and judicial sectors. Justice Bernard issues a call for a Regional Summit to address the issue and “devise solutions for excising this canker which is persistently eroding the fabric of our individual communities”.

The CSME, CCJ and Private Sector
by The Hon. Mr. Justice Duke E.E. Pollard; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Justice Pollard emphasizes the importance of recognizing that the conclusion of the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas establishing the Caribbean Community, including the Caribbean Single Market and Single Economy, is not to be viewed as a terminal, political event, undertaken by CARICOM States. It is, he acknowledges - and asks us to understand this quite clearly - “the initiation of what is likely to be a protracted and intractable process of economic and social transformation among an association of sovereign states”.

In his presentation, Justice Pollard discusses fully where the CCJ is positioned and where it ought to have been located within the regional integration process. In addition, he frankly addresses some of the shortcomings of the Court in the context of the implementation of the CSME. He notes for example, that the intractable problem of the contingent right of persons entitled to free movement, remains unresolved in the context of access to the social infrastructure of host States, by persons entitled to move, as well as their spouses and other members of their household. Justice Pollard further points out in this context that even though free movement is essential to the successful realization of any Single Market, yet Article 45 of the Treaty treats this “as a goal to be realized in the indeterminable future”.

CXC Beyond Thirty: Growth, Viability and Relevance
by Professor Kenneth O. Hall; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 4, July 2003.

In this article, Professor Hall, the chairman of the Caribbean Examinations Council analyses this institution, which he heads. He the notes that “in celebrating its 30 anniversary of unquestionable contribution to education, the development of high quality human resources and regional integration, the Caribbean Examinations Council is now faced with new challenges posed by the globalized and liberalized knowledge economy.”

The Debate on the Establishment of the Caribbean Court of Justice
by Professor Stephen Vasciannie; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004.

In this article, Professor Vasciannie examines the establishment of the Caribbean Court of Justice. He notes that the CCJ, a necessary corollary of the CSME represents the strengthening of the Community's internal arrangements. However, the Court in its original jurisdiction represents a widening of Caribbean jurisprudence. The CCJ is empowered to hear both civil and criminal matters that may arise during the conduct of business within the CSME. The Court is vested with authority to interpret and apply the Treaty of Chaguaramas with its jurisdiction being exclusive or final, thus ensuring that the clauses agreed to in the Treaty are translated into action by its signatories.

Delimitation in the Caribbean - CARICOM States: Prospects, Problems, Prognosis
by Dr. Barton Scotland; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Dr Scotland lists the problems that states must address before pursuing negotiations on maritime delimitation. He states that over sixty delimitations have to be completed by CARICOM states and that, where extra CARICOM states are involved, they are better equipped in resources and have a preponderance of economic, .political and military power. He further comments on the existing legislation of CARICOM states.

The Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries in the Caribbean
by Judge L. Dolliver Nelson; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Judge Nelson's paper has been published in 1987 as a chapter in Ocean Boundary Making: Regional Issues and Developments, edited by Douglas Johnston and Phillip Saunders. The paper therefore reflects somewhat the mood and hopes of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its associated Convention adopted on 30 April 1982. A number of the issues emerging from that Convention required jurisdictional delimitation.

Judge Nelson reviews generally the entire geographic area of the Caribbean Sea. He examines succinctly and instructively the maritime issues among the states that enclose the Caribbean Sea against the background of the living marine and mineral resources. He also contends that the close proximity of these states, the complex geology of the region and the resource potential of the waters and the seabed, alongside the claims of the states for greater territorial and economic jurisdiction over their coastal waters, inspired no doubt by the determination of the UNCLOS, have increased the need for maritime cooperation in the region.

The Development Glass Half Empty and Half Full: Perspectives on Caribbean Development
by Professor Clive Thomas; The Integrationist, Vol.3 No. 1, July 2002.

Professor Thomas acknowledges in his paper, the Hon. William Demas as the “quintessential Caribbean public servant, policy advisor and programme administrator, who over the years was responsible for much of the development and economic well-being that has been achieved by the Caribbean people, and which, by and large, goes under-appreciated today”. He takes the opportunity, however, to critically focus on how much still needs to be done, given what has been accomplished, as he says William Demas would have done. He examines the balance sheet of the development record and the hope placed in multilateralism.

Concerning the development record, Prof. Thomas notes that William Demas' generation brought significant development gains on the half full side of the glass. He identifies eleven areas for mention including: high educational indicators (school enrolment rates, literacy levels, government and national expenditure on education); a variety of safety net programmes in place (social security, youth programmes, crisis centres, advisory agencies); a vibrant civil society that has forged networks at regional as well as international level; ICT readiness has improved dramatically; good indicators of governance.

Development and Regionalism
by Professor Kari Polanyi-Levitt; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

According to Professor Kari Polanyi-Levitt the new wave of globalization has shattered the prolonged period of relative economic stability and economic growth in Europe and North America enjoyed after the Second World War and this had been replaced by massive social dislocations and exclusion on a global scale with polarising inequalities. She expresses that the global community has arrived at one of those critical moments in history when the world system experiences a transformation.

This imagined future anticipates a significant retreat from the universal capitalism of globalisation which may be realised through the formation of large regions of economic integration with political institutions of governance appropriate to geographic and historical realities.

Tracing the emergence of the present world system, Polanyi-Levitt observes that globalisation manifests similarities with earlier penetrations of capitalism into the developing world. Noting three waves of capitalist expansion in the 500 years of the modern world system, she explains how the surplus labour, displaced by industrialisation, emigrated to empty lands. Peripheral countries were transformed into export economies, the traditional division of labour between centres exporting manufactures and a periphery exporting primary products was established.

Economic Theory and Economic Policy in the 20th Century West Indies: The Lewis Tradition of Town and Gown (Legacy of Caribbean Leadership Series)
by The Hon. Lloyd Best (deceased); The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004.

In his presentation, Lloyd Best reviews the history of the Caribbean and locates the contribution of Sir Arthur Lewis in the stream of Western and Caribbean economic thought. He reminds us that in essence the Caribbean is facing the same challenges at the end of the 20th century that if faced at the end of the 15th century. Then, as now, it is imperative to craft a viable development path, which the flawed attempts of various Royal Commissions, as well as flirtation with various reforms, have failed to do. Critical to such an effort would be recognition of the potential role of the food producing residentiary sector to become a purveyor of increasingly higher productivity. The Hon. Best acknowledges the unassailable stature of Sir Arthur Lewis in economic development thought; the advantage of his use of history and theory as the basis of policy; his understanding of the way the developing world had been incorporated in the world order; and his understanding of how the micro realty at the level of the plantation and the staple export sector was linked to macro reality.

Economics Redefined
by William H. Parris, The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 2, December 2004.

The article reviews standard approaches and conventional concepts related to Economic Development and identified nine such concepts for abandonment. Using a framework built on a systems approach, he offers nine heresies for consideration.

Ethnic Voting: A Myth?
by W. Haslyn Parris; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

W. Haslyn Parris in this paper, undertakes to demonstrate the inadequacy of current and prevailing theories of ethnic voting in Guyana, claiming that these theories lack both explanatory and predictive validity. He consequently consigns these “assertions and allegations” about ethnic voting in Guyana to the category of great malignant myths. He reasons that the existence of a correlation between ethnicity and voting preferences seems to bolster the erroneous view with its proponents failing to realise that correlation does not unwaveringly imply causation or offer a sufficient explanation.

He traces the origin of the myth and opines that since the myth is derived from prejudice and stereotypes which are not eradicable or mutable in the short term, the myth will persist with its malignant effects in the short or medium term. He therefore recommends changes in the electoral game in which voting for your own is applicable; changing of the electoral process so that issues are canvassed; the emergence of an autonomous Electoral Commission; and the existence of a rational electorate, capable of weighing the merits of proffered visions and solutions. Parris is convinced that in the absence of such rationality of the electorate there is no resort.

Eric Williams and the Continuing Challenges of a Diverse Caribbean
by Professor Colin Palmer; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007.

Professor Colin Palmer, in his essay on Dr. Eric Williams, gives an insight into what it takes to be a Caribbean person - a commitment to the eradication of racism, racial prejudice and “where there is a division in political issues, that division must be divorced from all consideration of race”. Almost fifty years after Dr. Williams made that statement, racial considerations still dominate the politics of two of the most influential members of CARICOM

Exchange Rate Strategy in CARICOM: The Way Forward
by Dr. Delisle Worrell; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Dr. Worrell advances the view that the surprising ease with which the euro was introduced in the European Union suggests that a common currency may be a powerful instrument of economic integration, functioning to create a sense of common purpose and a shared economic space, with benefits well beyond the usual calculus of reduced transaction costs and reserve pooling savings.

He acknowledges that the prevailing sentiment within CARICOM appears to be that movement towards a single currency is beyond its grasp at the present, because countries are pursuing different exchange rate policies. However, he is of the other view - the introduction of a common currency in phases - commencing with the unification of the Trinidad and Tobago dollar, the Barbados dollar and the Eastern Caribbean dollar, appears feasible.

Foreign Policy Options for CARICOM: An Analytical Review
by Professor Stephen Vasciannie; First published in The Integrationist, Vol.1 No. 2, December 2003. It was later reprinted in CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist, edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

Professor Vasciannie notes that the Region's foreign policy orientation has been shaped by its historical legacy, its geographic location, and its small size, expressed in historically determined arrangements, including preferences, which have kept CARICOM States locked into a durable relationship of dependency with Europe. He points out that small size has imposed considerable constraints, in respect of market size, economies of scale and political power in the international arena, on individual CARICOM States.

Professor Vasciannie identifies the foundation of the Region's foreign policy noting the significance of economic considerations in the Region's foreign policy. Most CARICOM initiatives and viewpoints ultimately turn on economic factors since in the field of foreign policy, and at the foundation of most political issues in the Caribbean lies an economic foundation, as well as the significant role played by economic concerns in determining possible options for CARICOM, and the limits that may be applicable to each approach contemplated.

The Future of Haiti within CARICOM
by Dr. Claude Beauboeuf; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Dr. Beauboeuf points to cultural, political and structural considerations which would appear, at first glance, not to favour Haiti's membership of any integration process. He refers to a number of them: the traditional indifference and seeming insensitivity of Haitians to regional developments since the political, business and intellectual elites have not encouraged them to do otherwise; the limited availability of news on radio about the region; the emotional reaction of Haitians to the word CARICOM which is identified with Aristide's alleged destructive populism; the fragmentation and weakness of the county where decades of political and strategic mismanagement have undermined government's ability to control even the capital.

In addition, he points to the seeming predominance of political motives in the decision of 1999 to accede to CARICOM such as calming international pressures to end Haiti's traditional isolation, and gaining new friends with a view to furthering “questionable political objectives.” Further, the strongest classical justification for integration, that of economic stimulation and modernisation has been lacking, thereby making Haiti's decision appear to have been devoid of a solid basis and coherent vision, given the country's extreme structural weakness.

Globalisation and Civil Society in the Caribbean Integration by Design or by Default?
by Dr. Jack Menke; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

In response to globalisation, Professor Menke introduces his paper by stating that the actions to widen and deepen Caribbean integration since the Treaty of Chaguaramas in 1973 can be seen as a response to globalisation. So far, however, the Caribbean integration process has been characterised by the dominance of formal integration approaches and schemes, accompanied by a strong focus on external factors such as the WTO-regime, with much emphasis on legal procedures. Consequently, there has been an absence of Civil Society as a key actor in the process. Yet, an important precondition for the regional integration process in the Caribbean is the existence of a strong democracy in the individual states, with Civil Society as the backbone at the national and regional level. Civil society could play a pivotal role in Caribbean integration which would make a valuable contribution to overcoming constraints such as openness and fragmentation of the region, while at the same time utilizing the region's diversity as a resource.

The Guyana / Surinam Boundary Dispute in International Law
by The Hon. Mr. Justice Duke Pollard; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Justice Pollard addresses specifically the rights of Guyana and Suriname to exercise sovereignty in the New River Triangle. He gives an historical background of the colonization of the county of Berbice, the most easterly of the three counties of Guyana, by the English and the Dutch commencing from the early seventeenth century. He maps the respective positions of settlement at the time of their confirmation by the Peace Settlement in 1815 and the three colonies of Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice becoming British Guiana in 1831. He shows where the left bank of the Corentyne River was accepted by the British and the Dutch as constituting the boundary between Berbice and Suriname though the river was largely uncharted.

He recounts the surveys of Robert Schomburgk of the upper reaches of the Corentyne that resulted in the Cutari, sometimes spelt Kutari, being considered the source of the Corentyne. This upper course of the Corentyne-Cutari placed the area containing the New River Triangle as falling within the territory of Great Britain. This delimitation was accepted by Dutch and British geographers, later confirmed and reiterated in the Second Chamber of the Dutch States-General, and on a number of other occasions by the Ministers of the Colonies during the 1920's.

The Guyana - Suriname Territorial Conflict: Is the Moment Opportune for Third Party Intervention?
by Dr. Tyrone Ferguson; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Dr. Ferguson makes a persuasive case for a third-party mode of settlement of the entire territorial conflict, that is, both the maritime and land border. Dr. Ferguson covers briefly the historical background of the territorial conflict and the post-colonial efforts at resolution. He notes the deterioration of bilateral relations after the expulsion of Surinamese personnel from the New River Triangle in 1969 by the Guyanese military and the bitterness left in its wake. Then followed a long period of improved neighbourly relations commencing from the early 1970's. When a new government took office in October 1992, the relationship changed that by 2000 it degenerated into the only demonstration of the use of force by a Member State of CARICOM against another. The occasion was the expulsion by Suriname of the CGX Energy Inc oil rig from the offshore waters in the area of overlap.

Dr. Ferguson discusses the effects of the critical changes in Guyana's diplomacy in dealing with Suriname, domestic disruption in Guyana and the seeming neglect of the Guyana Defence Force at a time when Suriname was adjusting the marine sector of its armed forces. The result was that mediation by CARICOM was unable to broker a resolution; partly because Suriname, a new member of an English speaking body, was uncomfortable in the group believing that Guyana enjoyed excessive advantages through its long membership and affinities with the members. Both at the bilateral and regional levels, mediation ended quickly and unsuccessfully.

How it All Began: The Establishment of the Caribbean Examinations Council
by Archibald A. Moore, C.C.H; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 4, July 2003.

Archibald Moore in this article, provides a different perspective on the Caribbean Examinations Council, through his reflections on the establishment and growth of this institution.

Human Capital Development for Global Competitiveness: Defining Priorities and Articulating Strategies
by Professor Denis Benn; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No.1, June 2005.

This article draws attention to a number of challenges in the situation of Caribbean countries that make promotion of increased productivity and Competitiveness, a national and regional imperative. Professor Benn distinguishes this from human development, social capital and social psychological capital. He sees human capital development as being encompassed by the concept of capacity development which includes three distinct elements: development of individual capacities through increased education and training; institutional development; and the overall national development policy framework which influences the possibilities of individual and institutional development.

Prof. Benn makes it clear that there is need for a strategic vision of development; adoption of an appropriate macro policy framework; suitable investments in the productive sector and economic and social infrastructure, if an optimum level of human capital development is to be achieved. In his words: “Although human capital development is critical, it cannot take place in a situation in which other factors of production remain underdeveloped.” It also presupposes a “balanced relationship between government and the private sector and the establishment of effective public-private sector partnerships.”

Human Rights in the Caribbean: Notes on Perception and Reality
by Professor Stephen Vasciannie; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

On the aspect of Human Rights, Professor Stephen Vasciannie defends the human rights of the CARICOM States. The region, he points out, nevertheless attracts inordinate criticisms on its record. The Paper examines the main issues which are the focus of external critics the death penalty, refugee protection and abortion and locates its analysis in the constitutional arrangements of the countries and the peculiarities of their internal situations including importantly, the domestic legal realities. A call is made for more sensitivity on the part of external critics to the unique circumstances of the countries.

The Importance and Permanence of the OECS
by The Hon. Lester Bird; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 3, July 2002.

The Hon. Lester Bird in this speech, addressing the gathering at the 21st Anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Basseterre in 2002, reminisced on those events that gave rise to a change from that gloomy picture of a Region, beset with difficulties, to the momentous decision to establish the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), that historic pact, when “new ground was broken in the advancement of regional integration”. In looking back across the passage of regional developments, he opined that when on the 18th June 1981, seven nations signed the Treaty of Basseterre, that momentous event played more than a little part in ending the eight year no-Conference impasse of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community, and also brought a glimmer of light. This address also examines the role of the OECS countries and focuses on the need for this organisation to maintain and strengthen their machinery towards cooperation and economic integration in the fulfilment of their mandate.

Independent Thought and the Caribbean Community
by Professor Kari Levitt; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 3, December 2004.

The paper argues that the time is now appropriate for the Caribbean to reclaim the right to development and the right of nations to engage in the international economy on their own terms. This requires adequate space to follow divergent paths to development according to a society's priorities, its own culture, institutions and philosophy.

The International Criminal Process and the Global Community
by Justice the Hon. Dr. Mohammed Shahabuddeen; CARICOM: Appropriate Adaptations to a Changing Global Environment, The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 2, December 2004.

This paper examines the role, operating principles, and significance of international criminal tribunals, noting that such tribunals could best establish that there is a place in the international community for the promotion of humanitarian law and processes of accountability and reconciliation in theatres of conflict. It suggests that the Caribbean should be appreciative of such processes as part of the effort to maintain the bonds holding together the international community.

International Law and Protection of Small CARICOM States
by The Hon. Mr. Justice Duke Pollard; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007.

Justice Duke Pollard who has played such a leading and significant role in the revision of the Treaty of Chaguaramas, gives, in this paper, some valuable insights on the issue of the protection of the small states that comprise the Caribbean Community. It is axiomatic that small States cannot ensure their security solely by their own means. This is even more so today for several reasons, including the multiplicity of transnational and transborder activities which constitute threats to national security and which require international co-operation for their amelioration and the great extension of maritime space and resources placed under national jurisdiction, as a result of the coming into force of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea. Justice Pollard's paper examines how international law figures in enabling the small States of the Caribbean Community to defend their patrimony and maintain their right to sovereignty. Multilateralism, in the form of the United Nations, is seen as providing a reasonable prospect of security in a context of acknowledgment of the role of power in the relations between States and recognition of the deficit in enforcement capacity of international law generally, but more specifically in situations where the tenets and norms of international law collide with the interests of the major powers.

Jamaica in the International Arena: Leader or Follower, Historical Perspectives on Jamaica's Contribution to the International Community
by Professor Kenneth Hall; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

Both the title and the content of this paper are interesting, especially if they are looked at from the vantage point of a member of a Regional grouping that is looking out at the world as an environment in which that member is primarily trying to satisfy its own national goals. The choice then, is only cosmetically between leading and following. Rather it is between cooperating with the group to which one belongs, and defecting in the event that the group direction may conflict with one's own individual preferences and aspirations. 'Leading' and 'Following' are then perhaps best understood respectively as being up front, taking the initiative in persuading one's group colleagues to go in the direction one prefers; or being in the crowd, going along with a direction that one has no qualms about following even though it has been espoused by someone else who is up front.

The paper notes that all members of CARICOM would have faced, and will continue to face similar cooperate/defect decisions. They may think of the matters as 'lead' or 'follow' decisions, but the reality is that this cooperate/defect type of decision is an inescapable aspect of the evolution of cooperation within the Community. The Paper is a factual account of Jamaica's record since independence, which predates its membership of CARICOM. It records Jamaica's unwavering adherence, across changes of the Party in Government, to the principle of an active foreign policy for the purpose of satisfying domestic requirements.

Journalism for Caribbean Development
by Canute James; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 3, December 2004

Canute James appeals for the journalist to be less 'parochial' and defensive of sectoral and national interests and more global in perspective in terms of reporting on developments and impacts of globalisation.

Judging Lloyd Best: An Intellectual's Intellectual Independent thought and Caribbean Freedom
by Carey Fraser; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 3, December 2004

The paper treats extensively with Best's contribution to and optimism about regionalism and his belief that Caribbean development must be informed by intensive examination of its modalities and approaches on that the region's determination to grasp the opportunity opening up for systematic elaboration of sovereign policies and strategies to detail planning and management in common, on the basis of joint report and review and more precise projections on a comprehensive regional basis.

Legal Opinion on Guatemala's Territorial Claim to Belize
by Sir Elihu Lauterpacht, Judge Stephen Schwebel, Professor Shabtai Rosenne and Professor Francisco Orrego Vicuna ; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

This is a response to an approach by the Government of Belize to the international lawyers to prepare an Opinion that is impartial and well founded on the principles of international law considering whether Guatemala can validly question Belize's sovereignty over the territory of Belize or any part of it. The Joint Opinion has concluded that Guatemala's claim to the territory of Belize, or any part of it, is without merit and would be regarded as such by the International Court of Justice. The title of Belize to its territory is supported by two treaties: the Convention between Great Britain and the Republic of Guatemala relative to the Boundary of British Honduras that was signed in Guatemala on April 30, 1859, and the Exchange of Notes in 1931 that is considered as a corollary to the 1859 Convention.

Lewis in the 21st Century
by Professor Norman Girvan; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Dr. Girvan highlights three outstanding characteristics of Sir Arthur Lewis (now deceased). First, he was an anti-imperialist and a nationalist though not one of hate or blame but of self-confidence and self responsibility. He challenged his students, in the 1940's, to shift from criticism of colonial rule to focusing on what they would do when they have the responsibility to govern. Second, he was a social democrat and a firm believer in the mixed economy. He was against totalitarianism of left and right. He believed in development planning of the indicative type but not in central planning of the command type. Lewis was a socialist of the Fabian rather than the Marxist variety. He had a clear understanding of the market and the necessity of government intervention when the market failed. Third, he regarded himself as an Applied Economist rather than as an economic theorist. His concern was with the application of economics to the problems of public policy. Sir Lewis cannot be identified with any one school and he tended to use the tools (and even invent them) that seemed most appropriate to the problem.

In respect of his research work, Professor Girvan reminds us that Sir Arthur identified three major subject areas of his research: industrial economics; the history of the world economy since the middle of the 19th century; and problems of economic development.

Living in a World Fraught with Uncertainty and Profound Challenges
by Professor Kenneth O. Hall; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, March 2002.

This article reflects the words of Professor Kenneth Hall at the opening of the University of the West Indies', Mona Research Day 2001. He notes that the event is seen as an occasion “to publicise the research activities carried out by the University” and refers to the fact that even though research activities of the University are quite extensive, it is often not known to the wider community and policy makers. He posits that the fruits of such research could inform policy options available to Governments in the Caribbean, the private sector and other segments of society.

Modelling the Economy
by The Hon. Lloyd Best and Dr. Eric St Cyr; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

In this study, the authors take on the task of suggesting how Trinidad and Tobago's economic futures might be perceived, using specially devised viewing glasses, and how Governmental decisions in the present and near future might be implemented to attempt to assure a desirable transmutation. That desirable new state would be characterised by what is called an “inshore” sector that is made progressively less dependent on, and determined by, an “offshore” sector that is dominated by classic transnational corporations, foreign owned and financed. The “inshore” sector is “the cradle of the nation's economic life. Virtually the entire population, with its economic institutions including its would-be markets, functions in this sphere.” The inshore sector is to become less of a trailer responding to the offshore sector's performance as the locomotive of the overall economy. The State, apart from its traditional responsibilities for law, order, and government, is the link between the two sectors, and is required to devise and cause the implementation of policies to change the form of dependency of the inshore sector on the offshore sector.

As with all complex adaptive systems, there is sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and this principle mandates an evaluation of what Trinidad and Tobago's current (initial) state is. That current state, described as “an age of plenty”, has its fundamental macro-economic specifics spelt out in quantitative terms in a section on the economy in 2003 and 2004. The caveat is then offered, and the promise made, that “These facts notwithstanding, but recalling the wide swings in output to which the economy has traditionally been subject, that domestic inflation largely mirrors international trends and that the unemployment rate had similarly declined to single digit in 1982, we offer a fresh planning and management perspective and a methodology for projections.”

A Model for Reforming the Higher Education Sector in the Region to Facilitate Maximum and Equitable Development and Utilization of Human Resources: The Case for UWI-OECS Campus
by Glenford D. Howe; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

In this article, Glenford Howe makes a case for the creation of a multi-campus UWI-OECS system to serve the countries of the OECS, in a bid to make higher education more accessible to the people within those territories. He notes that currently, the majority of UWI students are drawn from the campus countries (80-90%) and he argues that the focus towards the economic development of the territories has changed since the 1950's and early 1960's, when economists felt that various forms of physical and financial capital were the key resources to be exploited.

Currently, the focus is on the full development of the human resources, through improved and increased access to higher education, which would ultimately determine the character and pace of a country's economic and social development. Howe notes also that historical trends and historical evidence indicate the continued existence of a pattern of under representation of students of the OECS, but also the fact of a diminishing proportion of Non Campus Country (NCC) students graduated by existing campuses which with the establishment of the Distance Education Unit has not appreciably been corrected.

National Planning by Small, Non Strategic Developing States in the Face of Declining Overseas Development Assistance
by Professor Compton Bourne; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

The paper charts a course of exposition of the issues by beginning with a perspective on planning. It notes that there are choices made about the nature of planning in which a country indulges. The choices range from the comprehensive rigidities of truly central planning to the more flexible attempts at indicative planning where a wish list of characteristics of the desired Promised Land is highlighted. In the case of the Caribbean, the government has often donned the mantle of planner as part of its assumed responsibility to marry economic prosperity to newly won nationhood. The paper notes that, a la Burns, these well-meaning attempts often 'gang aft a-gley'. The national planning options available, based on the nature of planning, on the weaknesses inherent in being a small, non-strategic state, and on the trends in ODA flows, represent a Byzantine mosaic in which it is well nigh impossible to specify blueprints for success. However, there are guidelines presented. These include: fostering international relations in accordance with one's own strategic interests; identifying opportunities for mutually beneficial alliances; doing one's best to raise domestic savings rates and improve the efficiency of savings; avoiding the pitfalls of incurring commercial debt; and managing aid more efficiently. This cocktail of prescriptions is nevertheless not guaranteed to protect from the Burns jeopardy of the best laid plans of small, non-strategic developing states 'gang aft a-gley', an' lea'e us nought but grief an' pain For promis'd joy.’

New Trends in Economic Integration: The Emergence of Regional Multinationals and Intra-Regional Flows
by Dr. Trevor Farrell; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003.

Dr. Trevor Farrell, Caribbean Economist presents a scholarly insight into the emergence of regional multinationals and intra regional flows. Integration has now entered into investment, causing such phenomena as merges, cross equity and inter-corporate linkages, limited so far, but could be broadly shared if policy makers take up the challenge. He refers to the fact that integration was now taking place in ways which were not contemplated in 1973. These developments are taking place primarily “in the area of services” rather than that of production integration. What is involved here are “intra-regional direct investment”, “mergers”, “acquisitions”, “cross-over equity” and “other forms of inter-corporate linkages (I.C.L's)” Also, there is the development of intra-regional portfolio investment and the emergence of a regional capital market. While these developments are good for the region, they have the disadvantage insofar that investments are being made mainly by Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and Barbados. “This is a repeat of what has happened with intra-regional trade. Making this a more broadly shared development is one important challenge for policy makers in the region.”

Non-Intervention and Intervention: CARICOM in Action, Grenada 1979-1983
by Ambassador Rashleigh Jackson; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang June 2007, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. It was first published in Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006, also edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang.

Ambassador Rashleigh Jackson's paper: “Non-Intervention and Intervention, CARICOM in Action Grenada 1979 and 1883”, is extracted from his Guyana's Diplomacy, Reflections of a former Foreign Minister, published in 2003. Jackson narrates an autobiographical account of his involvement in the development and implementation of the foreign policy of a newly independent small state of Guyana. He traverses the geo-political influences that derive from the territorial claims against Guyana from Venezuela and Suriname to outline the diplomatic balances constructed for the consolidation of relations with Brazil, a major power in South America, and later with Colombia. Within this ambit, he makes clear the importance of maintaining a climate of understanding with Suriname, an independent neighbour.

Ambassador Jackson underscores the maxim for small states in the global system that diplomacy, rather than the display of military prowess, should be at the core of a state's conduct in international relations. In the evolution of that relationship, the principle of non-intervention in the affairs of states should be the guiding one. He traces Guyana's unwavering advocacy of this principle in the major issues of the day, both at the regional and international levels. An eyewitness account is given of the Grenada episode following the coup and leading to the intervention in 1983.

Organic Theorising Inorganic Societies or The Need for Epistemic Sovereignty beyond Radicalism and Rebellion
by Dr. Kirk Meighoo; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007.

Dr. Kirk Meighoo's is of the view that as a colonial creation, the West Indies is “fundamentally incomplete and inorganic” and, being in existence for just over 500 years, there has not been enough time to form a civilization. What we have, he concludes, is a distinctive Caribbean culture zone.

In the context of regional integration, Dr. Meighoo argues that the constantly evolving ideas generated first, within the New World membership and subsequently, through the late Hon. Lloyd Best's Tapia House Group, are relevant to making the integration process a reality. For the Hon. Best, the West Indies is a distinctive province of human endeavour over which we have full responsibility, untrammelled by considerations of historical legacy and uninfluenced by current and borrowed concepts that have given rise to such terms as free market, developing countries, neo-liberalism, globalization and so on. In what Dr. Meighoo describes as epistemological sovereignty, such terms and concepts are not really useful to the understanding of “our distinctive human province on its own terms”.

The Original Jurisdiction of the Caribbean Court of Justice by The Hon. Mr. Justice Duke Pollard; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 3, July 2002. In this article, Justice Pollard examines Articles XI and XXIV of the Agreement Establishing the Caribbean Court of Justice, which addresses the original jurisdiction of the Court.

The Performance and Sustainability of the Standard System of Political Democracy: A Comparative Analysis of Guyana and Suriname
by Dr. Jack Menke; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

Dr. Jack Menke notes that Guyana and Suriname face a number of problems, of which some appear to be persistent. These problems - ranging from ethnic disharmony, political instability to blocked economic development - raise questions on the suitability and performance of the standard democratic system, whether it is the majoritarian or the non-majoritarian (consociational) model.

According to the writer the main problems perceived in the majoritorian model are ethnic disharmony, blocked nation building; political leadership and political instability. He notes that to these problems there are solutions sought in the non-majoritorian system of power sharing, of which 'connecting leaders through political parties', 'introducing a proportionate electoral system' and 'constitutional reforms' are the most important suggestions.

The writer's conclusion is that democratic practices and theoretical models discussed above give evidence that both the reality and model of the political systems in Guyana and Suriname are going through a crisis. The more or less persistent problems range from blocked development, political instability, ethnic polarization (except for Suriname) and blocked nation building. Further, that empirical data and events in these societies contradict the theoretical concept of the plural society and the related standard political models - the majoritarian and the nonmajoritarian models. A main difference is that unlike the nonmajoritarian system of Suriname, the majoritarian politics of Guyana appears to suffer from ethnic polarization.

Perspectives on the Economic Partnership Agreement negotiations with the EU
by Ambassador Edwin Laurent; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Ambassador Laurent in this paper, notes that the debate over the likely impact of the EPAs on the ACP countries was given renewed impetus, in (DFID) released an eleven point opinion questioning the contribution of the EPAs, as they are currently being negotiated, to the development of the ACP. Subsequently, in April 2005, the cross-party International Development Committee of the UK House of Commons (The Select Committee) released its highly critical report of the EPA negotiating process. Ambassador Laurent reviews the process of the negotiations and assesses the opinions of DFID and the finding of the Select Committee. In providing a background to the EPAs, he traces their conceptual origins to the European Commission's 1997 “Green paper on relations between the European Union and the ACP countries on the eve of the 21st century”. The clear preference of the Green Paper was for a reciprocal trade arrangement but its release prompted considerable public debate the ramifications of which are fully explored by Ambassador Laurent.

The Price of Failure to Negotiate Maritime Delimitation Agreements in CARICOM
by Carl Dundas; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 2, December, 2004

This paper addresses the lack of capacity in the area of maritime boundary delimitation and advocates a contributory regional arrangement paid for by Governments which would facilitate direct negotiations among Member States as against the more costly third party settlements now in process for certain countries, thereby minimizing acrimony among Member States and advancing the time horizon for accessing EEZ resources. It recognizes that only eight of a potential forty-eight maritime boundaries have so far been settled.

Reducing the CARICOM Task to Human Proportions
by The Hon. Lloyd Best; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

The late Hon. Lloyd Best in this article refers to the need for a candid assessment of post-independence management rather than remaining trapped in a culture of victimhood and hoping for the best. For closer political union to be achieved, he calls for a methodical approach to be pursued which sees political union, not as an end but as a process. As process, progress will depend precisely on a clear sequence of steps. This approach must be undertaken in the context of a clear vision of the world the Region wants to make, through its own endeavours (keeping acutely aware of external forces to be contended with or conquered). Its objectives are premised on the Caribbean being its own sovereign centre of decision.

Reflections of a Diplomat
by Ambassador J. O'Neil Lewis; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, CARICOM Options: Towards Full Integration Into the World Economy, The Integrationist Vol. 3 No. 2, July, 2006.

The reflections of Ambassador J. O'Neil Lewis are not vapid tales of journeys undertaken or dazzling accounts of capitals visited and credentials presented. Instead they are selected and close-up recollections that provide background and give colour, supply context and include texture. They allow those absent in that period to derive meaning and assign interpretations to developments of the past. Further, the matters of his reflections are not obsolete although they are of historical facts. These reflections are of recurring relevance and present significance to the Community and their implications go beyond the public invited by the Economic Association of Trinidad. His discourse contains much about the life of the Community, captures persistent difficulties, and encloses a multitude of concerns and details hardly known and perhaps, little appreciated hitherto within the region.

A Regional University to Promote Growth and Development in the Caribbean
by Professor. E. Nigel Harris; The Integrationist, Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2005.

Within this article, Professor E. Nigel Harris, Vice Chancellor of UWI, expresses his vision for the University by addressing four questions. In respect of the first, he deals with the issue of how the University can reposition itself to enhance its services to the stakeholders in the face of increasing loss of some of its best students to institutions outside of the region and even to extra-regionally owned institutions now present in the Caribbean. He expresses the view that the University's approach to this competition must be to demonstrate, decisively and unassailably, that it is FIRST in Education, FIRST in Research and the port of FIRST call for our governments. The UWI must show that it is first in education by demonstrating, to its targeted 30,000 - 40,000 students, its exceptional ability to prepare them with knowledge and skills relevant to Caribbean society in the 21st century and its ability to produce graduates who will become "agents and leaders of change".

Restoring Development to the Negotiating Agenda
by Dame Bille Miller; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003.

Dame Bille Miller's statement at the WTO Conference forms part of the feature on the WTO within that issue of The Integrationist. This statement alludes to the disappointing responses to the implementation of the Work Programme emanating from the Trade Ministers Meeting at Doha in 2001.

Review of the Rosehall Declaration Provisions on Regional Governance
by Professor Havelock Brewster; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003.

Professor Havelock Brewster, another well-known Caribbean economist who has written extensively on the integration process, analysed the Rose Hall Declaration on “Regional Governance and Integrated Development” adopted on the occasion of the Thirtieth Anniversary of CARICOM at the 24th Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community on 4th July 2003. Professor Brewster, while recognising that the Rose Hall Declaration indicates an intention for a more mature regionalism, warns against a “headlong” plunge into a European type system, “which, despite its impressive successes, has encountered serious frictions and other shortcomings (apart from being enormously costly)”. Professor Brewster examines the structures of the European Union, which make for integration as against those of the Caribbean Community. In particular, the proposed Caribbean Commission is analysed in relation to the existing European Union. As he indicated at the beginning of his article, Professor Brewster argues that the lessons to be drawn from the establishment of the European Union need to be studied in order that the Caribbean Community can benefit from such a study.

Science, Technology and Public Policy: Responding to the Imperatives of the Emerging Techno-Economic Paradigm
by Professor Dennis Benn; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004

Professor Benn observes that the scientific community needs to be abreast of the developments taking place in the Region so that it can respond to them, hinting at the need for appropriate institutions to facilitate ongoing dialogue between the scientific community and policy makers at both the national and regional level. He advocates the need for more alliances with research institutes to ensure effective networking and cross fertilization of ideas. His view is that science and technology has the potential to make an invaluable contribution to the development process in the region if guided by an enlightened public policy which must facilitate their positive impact and obviate any negative effects that may occur within the society.

Sir Dwight: OECS at the Centre
by Wesley Gibbings; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 3, July 2002, pp .8-11.

This article arose from an interview done by Caribbean journalist Wesley Gibbings. Sir Dwight Venner, Governor of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB), offers in his interview some interesting views on the role of the Central Bank and that played by the OECS within the larger integration process.

Smoke and Mirrors, Reform or Rip-Off: The EU Sugar Reform Proposals and CARICOM Sugar
by Professor Clive Thomas; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 2, December 2004.

This paper challenges elements of the European Union Reform proposal for sugar, the portrayal of the Sugar Protocol as a handout, as well as the expectation that liberalization of sugar markets would be so advanced worldwide as to expand, significantly, opportunities for exports of CARICOM countries. The paper acknowledges that numerous studies could not identify an alternative to sugar in terms of resource use, employment, linkages and so on. Recognition is also given to the fact that earnings from the ACP/EU arrangement have been vital to the success of the industry.

Stepping into the Same River Thrice: Haiti after the Flood
by Professor J. Michael Dash; The Integrationist, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2004.

In this article Haiti's political and economic situation is explored. Professor Dash urges the region to 'take the lead in going beyond the twin concerns with elections and market reform that drive much international policy in Haiti.’

The 'Success' of Cancun
by Sir Shridath Ramphal; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003.

Sir Shridath Ramphal in this article, comments on the WTO Ministerial Meeting in Cancun, which he hails as a “wondrous achievement” for the developing countries. He applauds the unity and resolutions of Third World counties in saying 'no' to the imposition of unfavourable terms of trade and economic negotiating outcomes and calls for a post Cancun review and strategy to maintain the momentum of the Cancun victory and forge a more balanced ordering of the global negotiating system.

Suriname-Guyana Maritime and Territorial Disputes: a Legal and Historical Analysis
by Dr. Thomas Donovan; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007 Dr. Donovan deals with all three aspects of the Guyana-Suriname boundary; the land along the Corentyne, the New River Triangle and the maritime boundary outside the territorial sea. Writing some twenty seven years after Pollard, he follows the period of colonization examined by Pollard and though he refers to some important developments during the 1930's to 1960's did not take advantage of the diplomatic correspondence between Great Britain and the Netherlands which have since been available.

Dr. Donovan makes a strong case, no different from Pollard's, about Guyana's title to the New River Triangle. He rests the case against the historical background and on the relevant principles of international law, relating to animus occupandi, that is, intent to control territory, and corpus, that is, actual control of territory. He shows where Suriname's claim to the territory is based primarily on possible prescription, that is, seeking to make legitimate a doubtful title by the passage of time and the acquiescence of the former sovereign, and hinterland claims derived from its colonial predecessor.

Three Decades of CXC: Its Influence and Impact
by Coreen A. Kennedy; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2003.

This article focuses on the impact and influence of the Caribbean Examinations Council. The appraisal of CXC's contribution to the educational landscape of the region confirms that the CXC examinations have successfully replaced British Examinations Boards, thus providing a very cost effective alternative and a span of significant influence, which extends beyond the borders of the Caribbean Community.

The Three Guianas: Their External Relations
by Professor Cedric Grant (deceased); edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

Professor Grant's paper on “The Three Guianas: Their External Relations” traces how history has dictated the lines of communication of the Guianas moving not across the borders of the countries towards each other, but outward from the continent to their metropolitan powers and to the group of countries in the Caribbean with which they are politically,. economically and culturally associated.

Accordingly, Guyana and Suriname have reacted to each other more as members of international and regional organizations, rather than as neighbours. There has been little trade or cultural exchange between them and much of their bilateral links is due to the migration of Guyanese workers and their contribution to the development of Suriname. So too, has been the settlement of Guyanese and Surinamese in French Guiana. A constant two-way tourist traffic, as well as a limited measure of trade between Suriname and French Guiana, accounts mainly for French Guiana's links with Suriname and Guyana. French Guiana, a department of France, cannot conduct its international affairs and is unable to interact with Suriname and Guyana in international organizations.

Towards a Human Resource Strategy for the Caribbean
by Professor Denis Benn; The Integrationist, Vol. 1 No. 2, March 2002.

Professor Denis Benn addressed the CARICOM Council for Human and Social Development (COHSOD) in October 2002. In this presentation he averts to the increasing recognition “of the importance of human resources in the development process…”. He refers to the fact that at the meeting of the Community Council held in Nassau on July 7, 2001, the University made a number of general observations on the content of the strategy. It had gone to review the revised strategy and discuss elements of it at a meeting between representatives of the University and the CARICOM Secretariat in August 2001. The additional observations and recommendations made by the University, constitute the basis of Dr. Benn's presentation, which was reprinted in the March 2002 issue of The Integrationist.

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery: The Psychic Inheritance
by Professor the Honourable Rex Nettleford; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007.

Professor the Hon. Nettleford in this paper, acknowledges the horrific legacy of slavery which even today conditions so much of our thinking and actions. He however, draws attention to the tremendous social capital which the forcibly transplanted inhabitants have used to enrich the region. He implores us to recognize that the historic encounters between diverse cultures “have forged tolerance out of hate and suspicion, unity with diversity and peace out of conflict and hostility”. This is a message of continuing hope for the region, once our historical antecedents are placed in proper context in our consciousness.

Transforming Tertiary Education to Meet Global Challenges
by Professor Kenneth O. Hall; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, The Caribbean Integration Process: A People Centred Approach. Kingston, Ian Randle Publishers, 2007

In this article, Professor Hall singles out Dr. Dennis Irvine for a special kind of Caribbean leadership quality in his address at the Inauguration of the Dennis Irvine Lecture Series. In Professor Hall's judgement, Dr. Irvine represented virtually all the qualities of a CARICOM man and a CARICOM Leader. As an educator, Dr. Irvine was concerned, not with learning for its own sake, but as a means of empowering people making them more pro-active, more self-sufficient and, in keeping with the Hon. Lloyd Best's concept, more able “to fulfil the human challenge of becoming higher men and creators of our own orders”.

Transnational Threats: Drug Trafficking and Its Impact on International Security - The Caribbean Perspective
by Colonel Linton H Graham; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

The paper defines and explores the complex web of issues and concerns related to the drug trade and its impacts on individual territories of the Caribbean, and on the Region taken as a whole. The intricate mosaic explored includes: drug use; drug trafficking; crime; poverty; affluence; arms; politics; corruption; high technology; complex financial structures and transactions; national and international power plays; the institutional framework for the maintenance of law and order; the macro economic effects on foreign cash flows, savings and investment; issues of national and international security; and impacts on foreign policy, diplomacy, and sovereignty.

The aura of secrecy surrounding drug transactions, and the pervasiveness of the effects of narco-trafficking is such that analytically, it becomes very difficult to separate fact from intuitively plausible conjecture, and cause from effect. Fortunately, these inherent difficulties do not deter the author from forging forward with analyses of what he perceives is, or appears to be, on the basis of opinions expressed or statistics garnered from an array of eminent and experienced observers and commentators. Although neither eminence nor experience is a guarantor of truth, they do give useful insights into where 'truth' or useful understandings might lie. The endnotes provide readers with a more than adequate starting point to make their own determinations of these dimensions.

Why CARICOM?
by Lloyd Searwar (deceased) ; edited by Kenneth Hall and Myrtle Chuck-A-Sang, Survival and Sovereignty in the Caribbean Community, The Integrationist, Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006.

This paper by the late Lloyd Searwar posed the question – Why CARICOM? which demands an answer; and indeed, as Searwar points out, it will continue to so do for as long as CARICOM exists with novariation in the clear goal, the dream, in the preamble to the Treaty of Chaguaramas - “Sharing a common determination to fulfill the hopes and aspirations of their peoples for full employment and improved standards of work and living.” Nevertheless, while CARICOM's basic objectives and aspirations may remain invariant, the domestic environment of individual members, and the international environment in which these objectives are pursued, are continually changing. Accordingly there is a persistent interplay between matters of sovereignty and matters of foreign policy, within the group and between the group and the powers that be in the wider world. Further, the strategic importance of CARICOM has not proven to be an invariant 'given', as both technological and political changes affect the world scene. These changes focus attention on new theatres of war and non-war competition.

Searwar captures the main specifics of these developments, lays them out simply, and starkly, but with the empathy of a native observer. It is from this standpoint that he considers the device, not usually considered by proponents of Caribbean Integration, of the possible use of referenda to put 'demos' into the practice of democracy in CARICOM, determining what the peoples of CARICOM think, and even confronting the possibility that they might conjointly opt for absorption into a more powerful country or group of countries in pursuit of their dream.

 
 
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